These categories help us understand the aggregate behavior of individuals as they come together to form different types of human societies. What’s worth noting, especially, are David’s insights with respect to the universality of tribal identity: tribalism is the first and final form of social organization. A sense of belonging is a core need, and is, in part, at least, what radical extremists exploit when recruiting new members. From SWJ (my bold):
Recent research has shown that isolated and marginalised groups and individuals are more likely to be lured by the messages of vengeance (perceived social and political justice) and a utopian life of the Caliphate (perceived sense of belonging and purpose).
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…in modern societies in Europe and North America, the tribal paradigm is constantly reiterated in large ways and small—not only in expressions of nationalism and “national character,” but also in the often-clannish organization and behavior of civic clubs, social circles, sports fans, urban gangs, and even “cyber-tribes,” to note a few examples. All such expressions reflect the tribal paradigm, for they are more about traditional desires for identity, honor, pride, respect, and solidarity than about modern desires for power and profit.
From In Search Of How Societies Work, Tribes — The First and Forever Form, by David Ronfeldt, page 57, before chapter titled, Modern Manifestations of the Tribal Form. (My bold text.)
A few more thoughts from the first commander in chief:
4th. Whatever Prisoners you take, must be treated with Kindness and Humanity. Their private Stock of Money and Apparel to be given them, after being strictly searched, and when they arrive at any Port, they are to be delivered up to the Agent, if any there; if not, to the Committee of Safety of such Port.
George Washington to Charles Dyar, January 20, 1776 (also to William Burke and John Ayres) IMAGES Head Quarters Cambridge, January 20, 1776. Sir: You being appointed Captain and Commander of the armed schooner Harrison in the Service of the United Colonies are to pay all Attention and Obedience to the following Instructions.
Should any American soldier be so base and infamous as to injure any [prisoner] … I do most earnestly enjoin you to bring him to such severe and exemplary punishment as the enormity of the crime may require. Should it extend to death itself, it will not be disproportional to its guilt at such a time and in such a cause … for by such conduct they bring shame, disgrace and ruin to themselves and their country.
George Washington to Benedict Arnold, September 14, 1775, two same date IMAGES Camp at Cambridge, September 14, 1775. Sir: You are intrusted with a Command of the utmost Consequence sequence to the Interest and Liberties of America.
Republican President Abraham Lincoln was one of the first world leaders to attempt to legally curtail the cruelty of modern war with the Lieber Code, authored by Napoleonic War veteran and legal scholar Francis Lieber:
A prisoner of war is subject to no punishment for being a public enemy, nor is any
revenge wreaked upon him by the intentional infliction of any suffering, or disgrace, by cruel
imprisonment, want of food, by mutilation, death, or any other barbarity.
One of the more curious experiences I had after signing up to serve was being offered large sums (for a poor kid from North Carolina, mind you) to work as a defense contractor. Contractors take on the same tasks as soldiers, but earn pay that can be very high compared to the set military scale. The result of the DoD’s contracting focus is that America ends up with a surplus of contractors who hold positions that could be done by uniformed personnel for less expense. Veteran Special Forces operator Lloyd Sparks has written an insider’s account of working life in America’s defense industry, outlining its curious culture and contradictions; his views add weight to calls for reform.
Buy Boondoggle: My Unexpected Career as a Military Defense Contractor on Amazon.com ✓ FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders
An older interview with the respected commander:
German journalist Jürgen Todenhöfer braved a visit to ISIS strongholds in Syria and Iraq in late 2014. He mentions the importance of “knowing the enemy” as motivation for his trip.
CBS News’s Steve Kroft reports that redacted pages of the 9/11 report may implicate the Saudi government in the attacks of 9/11.
As a veteran and citizen who has born personal witness to the immeasurable waste, incompetence, and pain inflicted on Afghanis, Iraqis, and US and international soldiers through our actions in Iraq and Afghanistan in response to 9/11, and who like most Americans, can mark the obvious statistic that 14 of the 19 hijackers were Saudis, and that none were Iraqi, or Afghani, I find the video report below rather intriguing, and would like to know the redacted contents myself.
It’s worth stating that The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for its part would like the redacted pages declassified. Given this fact, it’s likely that lower-level Saudi officials could have helped the hijackers, but without direct knowledge of the specifics of the plan that was being hatched, and without telling their superiors, and Saudi Arabian leaders want to be able to discuss this openly with us.
But it’s important to understand the following in making this conclusion: The capabilities of Middle Eastern intelligence services are greater than Americans generally imagine. I recall that in 2006 in Iraq, we found a child suicide bomber who’d run away hundreds of miles to the north to avoid self-immolation. The kid came to us willingly because within a day of his escape to the home of relatives, the insurgent intelligence networks had found him, and he was scared for his life. These networks did their sleuthing without analytical tools, computers, or any of the costly and isolating equipment we rely upon, but through personal ties and word of mouth, the same techniques a suspected Saudi agent used to help at least two of the 9/11 hijackers get flight training and housing in America. It’s also true that most of the suicide bombers wreaking havoc in Iraq were coming from Saudi Arabia. Being a totalitarian monarchy that exerts draconian control over its citizens, you’d think the Kingdom would have been able to mind its borders.
Finally, it’s worth considering the obvious (but, of course, technically unsubstantiated) notion that nations in this part of the world are notoriously double-dealing when it comes to the West.